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Title: Економічний стан Герцаївської волості у другій половині XIX століття
Other Titles: Экономическое состояние Герцаевской волости во второй половине XIX века
The economic state of Herceivsk volost in the second half of the nineteenth century
Authors: Мойсей, Антоній Аркадійович
Моісей, А.
Мойсей, А.
Моисей, А.
Moysey, A.
Moisey, A.
Keywords: Черновицкая область
Герцаевский район
Герцаевская волость
аграрная реформа
крупные землевладельцы
рэзеши (свободные крестьяне)
земельные наделы
товаризация хозяйств
Chernivtsi region
Hertsaivskyj district
Hertsaivska volost
agrarian reform
"large landowners"
rasyeshi (free peasants)
land plots
comradesity of farms
rational agriculture
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Актуальні питання суспільних наук та історії медицини
Abstract: Черновицкая область сформирована 7 августа 1940 года в результате аннексии Советским Союзом части тогдашней территории Румынии. В ее состав вошли северная часть Буковины, северная часть Хотинского уезда и Герцаевская волость. Захват сел Герцаевского края не предусматривался никакими договорами. Видимо, это стало причиной замалчивания советскими историками прошлого Герцаевской волости. В данной статье впервые в украинской историографии освещается экономическое состояние этого района во второй половине XIX века. Исследование основано на двух источниках: книге И. Ионеску "Румынское сельское хозяйство в Дорогойском уезде" (1866 г.) и 5-томном издании "Большого географического словаря Румынии" (1898-1902 гг.), которые характеризуют аграрную реформу 1864 г. в крае. The Chernivtsi region as an administrative unit of Ukraine was founded on August 7, 1940. It was formed as a result of annexation of the then Romanian territory by the Soviet Union. It included the northern part of Bukovina, the northern part of the Khotyn county and the Hertsaivsk volost' of the Dorogoyskyj district, which was not mentioned in any legal document. Soviet historians have suppressed the past of this region, believing that it belongs to Bukovina. There were no special studies devoted to Hertsaivskyj region in Ukrainian historiography, if not to mention the studies of considering its illegal capture by the Red Army in the summer of 1940. The purpose of the article is to characterize the economic indicators of the Hertsaivskyj region in the second half of the nineteenth century. Its novelty is due to the use of materials not yet published in the Ukrainian scientific discourse, such as: the state of the rural genderness of the Hertsaivska volost in 1866 and its general assessment during 1899-1902. Metodology of the article is based on the analysis of agrarian culture in this region and its general economic situation, as well as the cultural level, historical state, the synthesis of disparate information. The basic source for the study of the region's economy during this period was two fundamental works: "Romanian agriculture of the Dorogoyskyj district (1866) by I. Ionesku de la Brada and the 5-volume "Large geographic dictionary of Romania" (1898-1902) by G. Lakhovari, K. Bratian, G. Tochilesku. Conclusions. It could be concluded, that the economic processes of this period, characteristic of Romania, Bukovina and Bessarabia were observed in the Hercevsk Region. The distribution of land to the peasants as a agrarian reform of 1864result, their liberation from serfdom influenced the economic, social and cultural development of the region. Landowners still had a great influence on the rural economy, free labor of former serfs kept their economy in a satisfactory condition. But there was a new layer of hosts. They had been transformed into more resilient leaders, who have added new land to their land (they have been possessed the necessary of the tractive force to obtain a substantial increase), they could lease additional space. For 35 years their number has not decreased, and profits were kept at a constant level. They picked up those initiatives of rational management of agriculture, which were in large landowners, increasing the comradeship of their holdings. Herz and Mommitsy's Jewish communities are also contributing to this process. They actively developed trade and handicrafts. Fairs in the mentioned towns revived the economic life of the region. The bulk of the landless peasantry was in a difficult situation: survived due to labor on its land, but for them there were new opportunities for earning money: the sale of manpower. At the same time, there was a need for widespread education and medicine development. And in this period there were opened first schools, hospitals with a large number of churches at the time. So the population of the region have got the opportunity to earn an education in a new facility of Dorogoyskyj district.
Appears in Collections:Статті. Кафедра суспільних наук та українознавства

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